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مرات المشاهدة
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حجم الكتاب 3.45 ميجا
هل تريد أن يصلك يومياً كل ما يخص التعلم عبر الإنترنت ؟ فقط انضم الينا على التليجرام اشترك في قناتنا على التليجرام

محطات القوى الكهربية هي القلب النابض للكهرباء في العالم , فمعظم الكهرباء الموجودة في العالم الىن هي نتاج لمحطات القوى الكهربية, وفي كتاب Power Plant Engineering سوف نتعلم كل ما يتعلق بالمحطات الكهربية المتنوعة.

ويهم هذا الكتاب جميع الطلاب والمتخصصين في مجالي الهندسة الكهربية وهندسة القوى الكهربية, لما يوجد من رابط وثيق بين هاذيين التخصصين في محطات القوى الكهربية.

Chapter 1: Fundamental of Power Plant … 1
1.1 Introduction … 1
1.2 Concept of Power Plants … 1
1.3 Classification of Power Plants … 2
1.4 Energy … 3
1.5 Types of Energy … 4
1.6 Power … 5
1.7 Power Development in India … 5
1.8 Resources for Power Generation … 7
1.9 Present Power Position in India … 9
1.10 Future Planning for Power Generation … 9
1.11 Power Corporations in India … 11
1.11.1 National Thermal Power Corporation … 11
1.11.2 National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation … 11
1.11.3 Rural Electrification Corporation … 12
1.11.4 Damodar Valley Corporation … 12
1.11.5 North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited … 12
1.11.6 Bhakra Beas Management Board and Beas Construction Board … 13
1.11.7 Power Engineers Training Society (PETS) … 13
1.11.8 Central Power Research Institute (CPRI), Bangalore … 13
1.11.9 Nathpa, Jhaicri Power Corporation Limited … 13
1.12 Review of Thermodynamics Cycles Related to Power Plants … 14
1.13 Classification of Power Plant Cycle … 15
1.13.1 Carnot Cycle … 15
1.13.2 Rankine Cycle … 15
1.13.3 Reheat Cycle … 16
1.13.4 Regenerative Cycle (Feed Water Heating) … 16
1.13.5 Binary Vapour Cycle … 17
1.13.6 Reheat-Regenerative Cycle … 17
1.13.7 Formula Summary … 18

1.14 Fuels and Combustion … 18
1.15 Steam Generators … 18
1.16 Steam Prime Movers … 19
1.17 Steam Condensers … 19
1.17.1 Surface Condensers … 20
1.17.2 Jet Condensers … 22
1.17.3 Types of Jet Condensers … 22
1.18 Water (Hydraulic) Turbines … 23
1.18.1 Impulse and Reaction Turbines … 23
1.19 Scienc Vs. Technology … 25
1.19.1 Scientific Research … 25
1.19.2 Science and Technology Infrastructure … 26
1.20 Facts Vs. Values … 26
1.21 Atomic Energy … 26
1.22 Highlights of the Nuclear Power Programme … 27
1.23 Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited … 27
1.24 Ocean Engineering Applications … 28
Chapter 2: Non-Conventional Energy Resources and Utilisation … 33
2.1 Introduction … 33
2.2 Energy Science … 33
2.3 Various Energy Science … 33
2.4 Energy Technology … 35
2.5 Energy Technology and Energy Sciences … 36
2.6 Law of Conservation of Energy … 37
2.7 Facts and Figures about Energy … 37
2.8 Indian and Global Energy Sources … 38
2.8.1 The Sun … 38
2.8.2 etroleum … 39
2.8.3 Natural Gas … 43
2.8.4 Coal … 44
2.8.5 Nuclear Energy … 45
2.8.6 LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas) … 46
2.8.7 Alcohol … 46
2.8.8 Gasohol … 46
2.8.9 Hydro Power … 46
2.9 Energy Exploited … 46
2.10 Energy Demand … 48

2.11 Energy Planning … 49
2.12 Introduction to Various Sources of Energy … 51
2.12.1 Conventional Sources of Energy … 51
2.12.2 Non-Conventional Sources of Energy … 51
2.13 Introduction to Various Non-Conventional Energy Resources … 52
2.14 Bio-Gas … 53
2.14.1 Aerobic and Anaerobic Bio-Conversion Process … 53
2.14.2 Raw Materials … 55
2.14.3 Properties of Bio Gas … 56
2.14.4 Bio Gas Plant Technology … 56
2.15 Wind Energy … 58
2.15.1 Wind Machine Fundamentals … 59
2.15.2 Aerofoil Design … 60
2.15.3 Wind Power Systems … 62
2.15.4 Economic Issues … 63
2.15.5 Selection of Wind Mill … 64
2.15.6 Recent Developments … 65
2.16 Solar Energy … 66
2.16.1 Solar Radiations … 67
2.16.2 Solar Thermal Power Plant … 68
2.16.3 Solar Energy Storage … 70
2.16.4 Recent Developments in Solar Power Plants … 72
2.17 Electrochemical Effects and Fuel Cells … 73
2.17.1 Reversible Cells … 73
2.17.2 Ideal Fuel Cells … 74
2.17.3 Other Types of Fuel Cells … 75
2.17.4 Efficiency of Cells … 76
2.18 Thermionic Systems and Thennionic Emission … 78
2.18.1 Thermoionic Conversion … 79
2.18.2 Ideal and Actual Efficiency … 80
2.19 Thermoelectric Systems … 82
2.19.1 Principle of Working … 82
2.19.2 Performance … 83
2.20 Geo Thermal Energy … 86
2.20.1 Hot Springs … 87
2.20.2 Steam Ejection … 87
2.20.3 Site Selection … 88

2.20.4 Geothermal Power Plants … 88
2.20.5 Advanced Concepts … 95
2.21 Ocean Energy … 97
2.21.1 Power Plants Based on Ocean Energy … 98
2.22 Other Energy Technology … 101
2.22.1 Liquid Fuel … 101
2.22.2 Fuel Cell Technology … 103
2.22.3 Hydrogen Energy … 104
2.22.4 Hydrogen Energy Technology … 104
2.22.5 Battery Operated Vehicles … 106
2.22.6 Bio Fuel Technology … 107
2.22.7 Hydroelectric Power … 107
2.22.8 Innovative Heat Exchanger to Save Energy … 108
Chapter 3: Power Plant Economics and Variable Load Problem … 120
3.1 Terms and Factors … 120
3.2 Factor Effecting Power Plant Design … 122
3.3 Effect of Power Plant Type on Costs … 122
3.3.1 Initial Cost … 122
3.3.2 Rate of Interest … 123
3.3.3 Depreciation … 123
3.3.4 Operational Costs … 124
3.3.5 Cost of Fuels … 125
3.3.6 Labout Cost … 125
3.3.7 Cost of Maintenance and Repairs … 125
3.3.8 Cost of Stores … 125
3.3.9 Supervision … 126
3.3.10 Taxes … 126
3.4 Effect of Plant Type on Rates (Tariffs or Energy Element) … 126
3.4.1 Requirements of a Tariff … 126
3.4.2 Types of Tariffs … 126
3.5 Effect of Plant Type on Fixed Elements … 129
3.6 Effect of Plant Type on Customer Elements … 129
3.7 Investor’s Profit … 129
3.8 Economics in Plant Selection … 130
3.9 Economic of Power Generation … 131
3.10 Industrial Production and Power Generational Compared … 132
3.11 Load Curves … 132

3.12 Ideal and Realized Load Curves … 133
3.13 Effect of Variable Load on Power Plan Design … 133
3.14 Effect of Variable Load on Power Plant Operation … 134
Chapter 4 : Steam Power Plant … 142
4.1 Introduction … 142
4.2 Essentials of Steam Power Plant Equipment … 142
4.2.1 Power Station Design … 144
4.2.2 Characteristics of Steam Power Plant … 144
4.3 Coal Handling … 145
4.3.1 Dewatering of Coal … 149
4.4 Fuel Burning Furnaces … 150
4.4.1 Types of Furnaces … 150
4.5 Method of Fuel Firing … 151
4.5.1 Hand Firing … 151
4.5.2 Mechanical Firing (Stokers) … 153
4.6 Automatic Boiler Control … 156
4.7 Pulverized Coal … 157
4.7.1 Ball Mill … 158
4.7.2 Ball and Race Mill … 159
4.7.3 Shaft Mill … 161
4.8 Pulverized Coal Firing … 161
4.9 Pulverized Coal Burners … 163
4.9.1 Cyclone Fired Boilers … 166
4.10 Water Walls … 166
4.11 Ash Disposal … 167
4.11.1 Ash Handling Equipment … 168
4.12 Smoke and Dust Removal … 172
4.13 Types of Dust Collectors … 172
4.13.1 Fly Ash Scrubber … 174
4.13.2 Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) … 175
4.13.3 Types of FBC Systems … 176
Chapter 5 : Steam Generator … 179
5.1 Introduction … 179
5.2 Types of Boilers … 179
5.3 Cochran Boilers … 181
5.4 Lancashire Boiler … 183

5.5 Locomotive Boiler … 185
5.6 Babcock Wilcox Boiler … 187
5.7 Industrial Boilers … 189
5.8 Merits and Demerits of Water Tube Boilers over Fire Tube Boilers Mertis … 189
5.9 Requirements of a Good Boiler … 190
5.10 High Pressure Boilers … 190
5.10.1 La Mont Boiler … 191
5.10.2 Benson Boiler … 191
5.10.3 Loeffler Boiler … 192
5.10.4 Schmidt-Hartmann Boiler … 193
5.10.5 Velox Boiler … 193
Chapter 6 : Steam Turbine … 195
6.1 Principle of Operation of Steam Turbine … 195
6.2 Classification of Steam Turbine … 196
6.3 The Simple Impulse Turbine … 200
6.4 Compounding of Impulse Turbine … 201
6.5 Pressure Compounded Impulse Turbine … 202
6.6 Simple Velocity-Compounded Impulse Turbine … 203
6.7 Pressure and Velocity Compounded Impulse Turbine … 204
6.8 Impulse-Reaction Turbine … 205
6.9 Advantages of Steam Turbine over Steam Engine … 206
6.10 Steam Turbine Capacity … 206
6.11 Capability … 207
6.12 Steam Turbine Governing … 207
6.13 Steam Turbine Performance … 207
6.14 Steam Turbine Testing … 208
6.15 Choice of Steam Turbine … 208
6.16 Steam Turbine Generators … 208
6.17 Steam Turbine Specifications … 209
Chapter 7 : Fuels and Combustion … 217
7.1 Introduction … 217
7.2 Coal … 217
7.3 Coal Analysis … 219
7.3.1 Proximate Analysis … 219
7.3.2 Ultimate Analysis … 219
7.3.3 Heating Value … 219

7.4 Coal Firing … 221
7.5 Mechanical Stokers … 222
7.6 Pulverized-Coal Firing … 224
7.7 Cyclone Furnaces … 230
Chapter 8 : Diesel Power Plant … 234
8.1 Introduction … 234
8.2 Operating Principle … 236
8.3 Basic Types of IC Engines … 236
8.3.1 Two-Stroke, Spark Ignition Gas Engines/Petrol Engines … 237
8.3.2 Diesel Engines/Heavy Oil Engines … 237
8.3.3 Duel Fuel Engines … 237
8.3.4 High Compression Gas Engines … 238
8.4 Advantage of Diesel Power Plant … 238
8.5 Disadvantage of Diesel Power Plant … 238
8.6 Application of Diesel Power Plant … 238
8.7 General Layout of Diesel Power Plant … 239
8.8 Performance of Diesel Engine … 239
8.8.1 Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) … 239
8.8.2 Indicated Hourse Power (IHP) … 239
8.8.3 Brake Horse Power (B.H.P.) … 240
8.8.4 Frictional Horse Power (F.H.P.) … 240
8.8.5 Indicated Thermal Efficiency … 240
8.8.6 Brake Thermal Efficiency (Overall Efficiency) … 240
8.8.7 Mechanical Efficiency … 240
8.9 Fuel System of Diesel Power Plant … 241
8.10 Lubrication System of Diesel Power Plant … 242
8.10.1 Liquid Lubicricants or Wet Sump Lubrication System … 244
8.10.2 Solid Lubricants or Dry Sump Lubrication System … 246
8.10.3 Mist Lubrication System … 246
8.11 Air Intakes and Admission System of Diesel Power Plant … 246
8.12 Supercharging System of Diesel Power Plant … 247
8.12.1 Types of Supercharger … 248
8.12.2 Advantages of Supercharging … 249
8.13 Exhaust System of Diesel Power Plant … 249
8.14 Cooling System of Diesel Power Plant … 250
8.14.1 Open Cooling System … 251
8.14.2 Natural Circulation System … 251

8.14.3 Forced Circulation Cooling System … 251
8.15 Diesel Plant Operation … 252
8.16 Efficiency of Diesel Power Plant … 253
8.17 Heat Balance Sheet … 255
Chapter 9 : Gas Turbine Power Plant … 267
9.1 Introduction … 267
9.2 Classification of Gas Turbine Power Plant … 267
9.2.1 Open Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant … 268
9.2.2 Closed Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant … 269
9.3 Elements of Gas Turbine Power Plants … 272
9.3.1 Compressors … 272
9.3.2 Intercoolers and Heat Exchangers … 273
9.3.3 Combustion Chambers … 274
9.3.4 Gas Turbines … 276
9.4 Regeneration and Reheating … 276
9.4.1 Regeneration … 276
9.4.2 Reheating … 278
9.5 Cogeneration … 279
9.5.1 Cogeneration—Why … 279
9.5.2 Cogeneration Technologies … 280
9.6 Auxiliary Systems … 282
9.6.1 Starting Systems … 282
9.6.2 Ignition Systems … 283
9.6.3 Lubrication System … 283
9.6.4 Fuel System and Controls … 285
9.7 Control of Gas Turbines … 286
9.7.1 Prime Control … 286
9.7.2 Protective Controls …. 287
9.8 Gas Turbine Efficiency … 289
9.8.1 Effect of Blade Friction … 291
9.8.2 Improvement in Open Cycle … 291
9.9 Operations and Maintenance Performance … 292
9.9.1 Operation … 292
9.9.2 Maintenance Performance … 293
9.10. Troubleshooting and Remedies … 294
9.11 Combined Cycle Power Plants … 295
9.12 Applications of Gas Turbine … 296

9.13 Advantages of Gas Turbine Power Plant … 296
9.14 Disadvantages … 297
Chapter 10 : Nuclear Power Plant … 307
10.1 Introduction … 307
10.2 General History and Trends … 308
10.2.1 Major Events … 308
10.2.2 What Might Change the Current Situation ? … 309
10.2.3 Technical History and Developments … 311
10.2.4 Developments After WW-2 … 311
10.3 The Atomic Structure … 312
10.4 Summary of Nuclear Energy Concepts and Terms … 314
10.4.1 Summary of Features … 314
10.4.2 Fission … 314
10.4.3 Critical Mass … 315
10.4.4 Alpha Radiation … 315
10.4.5 Beta Particles … 315
10.4.6 Gamma Particles … 315
10.4.7 Uramium Fission … 315
10.4.8 Half Life, T … 316
10.5 Ethical Problems in Nuclear Power Regulation … 316
10.6 Chemical and Nuclear Equations … 316
10.7 Nuclear Fusion and Fission … 317
10.7.1 Fusion … 318
10.7.2 Fission … 319
10.8 Energy From Fission and Fuel Burn Up … 320
10.9 Radioactivity … 320
10.10 Nuclear Reactor … 322
10.10.1 Parts of a Nuclear Reactor … 322
10.10.2 Nuclear Fuel … 322
10.10.3 Moderator … 324
10.10.4 Moderating Ratio … 324
10.10.5 Reflector … 325
10.10.6 Reactor Vessel … 325
10.10.7 Biological Shieding … 326
10.10.8 Coolant … 326
10.10.9 Coolant Cycles … 326
10.10.10 Reactor Core … 326

10.11 Conservation Ratio … 327
10.12 Neutron Flux … 327
10.13 Clasification of Reactors … 327
10.14 Cost of Nuclear Power Plant … 327
10.15 Nuclear Power Station in India … 328
10.16 Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) … 331
10.16.1 Importance of Heavy Water … 332
10.17 Site Selection … 333
10.18 Comparison of Nulcear Power Plant and Steam Power Plant … 334
10.19 Multiplication Factor … 334
10.20 Uranium Enrichment … 334
10.21 Reactor Power Control … 336
10.22 Nuclear Power Plant Economics … 336
10.23 Safety Measures for Nuclear Power Plants … 337
10.24 Site Selection and Commissioning Procedure … 338
10.25 Major Nuclear Power Disasters … 338
10.26 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant … 339
10.26.1 Reactor Design: RBMK-1000 … 340
10.26.2 Control of the Reactor … 340
10.26.3 Chernobyl Reactor Operations … 340
10.26.4 Accident/Safety Plans … 340
10.26.5 Evacuation … 340
10.27 Safety Problems in Chernobyl Reactor Design … 340
10.27.1 System Dynamics … 340
10.27.2 Another Safety Problem with the Design … 341
10.28 Other, Earlier, Soviet Nuclear Accidents … 341
Chapter 11 : Hydro-Electric Power Plants … 343
11.1 Introduction … 343
11.2 Run-Off … 345
11.3 Hydrograph and Flow Duration Curve … 347
11.4 The Mass Curve .. 347
11.5 Selection of Site for a Hydro-Electric Power Plant … 348
11.6 Essential Features of a Water-Power Plant … 349
11.7 Calculations of Water Power Plants … 351
11.8 Classification of Hydro-Plant … 352
11.8.1 Storage Plants … 352
11.8.2 Run-of-River Power Plants … 354

11.8.3 Pumped Storage Power Plants … 354
11.9 Power House and Turbine Setting … 355
11.9.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Underground Power-House … 359
11.10 Prime-Movers … 362
11.11 Specific Speed of Turbine … 367
11.12 Draft Tubes … 370
11.12.1 Methods to Avoid Cavitation … 375
11.12.2 Types of Draft Tubes … 375
11.12.3 Different Types of Draft Tubes … 377
11.13 Models and Model Testing … 378
11.14 Selection of Turbine … 381
Chapter 12 : Electrical System … 386
12.1 Introduction … 386
12.2 Generators and Motors … 386
12.2.1 Rotors … 387
12.2.2 Stators … 389
12.2.3 Ventilation … 390
12.2.4 Hight-Voltage Generators … 392
12.3 Transformers … 392
12.3.1 Constructional Parts … 393
12.3.2 Core Constructions … 393
12.3.3 Windings … 397
12.4 Cooling of Transformers … 402
12.4.1 Simple Cooling … 403
12.4.2 Mixed Cooling … 403
12.4.3 Natural Oil Cooling … 403
12.4.4 Forced Oil Cooling … 405
12.4.5 Internal Cooling … 406
12.5 Bus-Bar … 409
12.5.1 Single Bus-Bar System … 409
12.5.2 Single Bus-Bar System with Sectionalisation … 409
12.5.3 Duplicate Bus-Bar System … 410
12.6 Busbar Protection … 411
12.6.1 Differential Protection … 411
12.6.2 Fault Bus Protection … 412

Chapter 13 : Pollution and its Control … 414
13.1 Introduction … 414
13.2 Environment Pollution due to Energy Use … 414
13.3 Environment Pollution due to Industrial Trial Emissions … 415
13.4 Environment Pollution to Road Transport … 415
13.5 Harmful Effects of Emissions … 415
13.5.1 Buildings and Materials … 416
13.5.2 Soil, Vegetation and Animal Life … 416
13.5.3 Human Beings … 416
13.6 Steps Taken so far and their Impact … 416
13.7 Noise Pollution and its Control … 417
13.8 Green House Gases and their Effects … 418
13.9 Fossil Fuel Pollution … 419
13.9.1 Urban Air Pollution … 419
13.9.2 Acid Rain … 420
13.9.3 Global Climate Change … 420
13.9.4 Stratospheric Ozone Depletion … 420
13.9.4 Acid Fog … 420
13.10 Pollution due to Combustion of Fuel … 421
13.10.1 Gas Fuel … 421
13.10.2 Methane … 421
13.10.3 Alkanes … 422
13.11 Pollution due to Gas Combustion … 422
13.11.1 Unburned Hydrocarbons (UHCS) … 422
13.11.2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) … 422
13.11.3 Nitric Oxide (NOx) … 422
13.11.4 Soot … 424
13.12 Pollution due to Liquid Fuel … 424
13.12.1 Atomization … 424
13.12.2 Vaporization … 424
13.12.3 Modes of Combustion … 424
13.13 Pollution due to Solid Fuel … 425
13.14 Air Pollution by Thermal Power Plants … 428
13.15 Water Pollution by Thermal Power Plants … 428
13.16 Environment Concerns and Diesel Power Plants … 429
13.17 Nuclear Power Plant and the Environment … 431

13.17.1 The Fuel Cycle … 432
13.17.2 Wastes … 433
13.18 Radiations from Nuclear-Power Plant Effluents … 434
13.19 Impact on Pollution and Air Qality in Delhi … 434
13.19.1 Environmental Concerns … 435
13.19.2 Pollution Levels … 435
13.19.3 Measurs to Combat Pollution … 436
13.20 Method for Pollution Control … 440
13.21 Control of Marine Pollution … 441
Appendix … 443
Glossary … 445
Bibliography … 455
Index … 462

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