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وهذا بالضبط ما يناقشه كتاب Thinking Skills: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving

Unit 1 Thinking and reasoning
1.1 Thinking as a skill 1
1.2 An introduction to critical thinking 7
1.3 Solutions not problems 13
Unit 2 Critical thinking: the basics
2.1 Claims, assertions, statements 16
2.2 Judging claims 21
2.3 Argument 28
2.4 Identifying arguments 33
2.5 Analysing arguments 38
2.6 Complex arguments 43
2.7 Conclusions 50
2.8 Reasons 58
2.9 Assumptions 63
2.10 Flaws and fallacies 70
Unit 3 Problem solving: basic skills
3.1 What do we mean by a ‘problem’? 79
3.2 How do we solve problems? 82
3.3 Selecting and using information 86
3.4 Processing data 90
3.5 Finding methods of solution 93
3.6 Solving problems by searching 98
3.7 Recognising patterns 102
3.8 Hypotheses, reasons, explanations and inference 106
3.9 Spatial reasoning 112
3.10 Necessity and sufficiency 116
3.11 Choosing and using models 119
3.12 Making choices and decisions 123
Unit 4 Applied critical thinking
4.1 Inference 126
4.2 Explanation 137
4.3 Evidence 144
4.4 Credibility 150
4.5 Two case studies 156
4.6 Critical thinking and science 163
Contents

iv Contents
4.7 Introducing longer arguments 170
4.8 Applying analysis skills 177
4.9 Critical evaluation 183
4.10 Responding with further argument 191
4.11 A self-assessment 195
Unit 5 Advanced problem solving
5.1 Combining skills – using imagination 205
5.2 Developing models 211
5.3 Carrying out investigations 220
5.4 Data analysis and inference 225
Unit 6 Problem solving: further techniques
6.1 Using other mathematical methods 231
6.2 Graphical methods of solution 235
6.3 Probability, tree diagrams and decision trees 240
6.4 Have you solved it? 246
Unit 7 Critical reasoning: Advanced Level
7.1 Conditions and conditionals 249
7.2 Soundness and validity: a taste of logic 254
7.3 Non-deductive reasoning 262
7.4 Reasoning with statistics 269
7.5 Decision making 279
7.6 Principles 287
7.7 An argument under the microscope 295
7.8 Critical writing

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